Midlatitude tropical interactions during winter
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Pre-FGGE and FGGE/MONEX data are used to identify short term midlatitude tropical and longitudinal interactions during the winter monsoon. These interactions occur as cold surges, which develop over the East Asian continent and penetrate deep into the tropics with fast gravity wave speed. The observed interactions that occur after a surge include cyclogenesis and enhanced convection in the equatorial region, feedback from equatorial convection to midlatitude circulation systems, tropical east-west (Walker) circulations, and cross-equatorial influence. These interactions are also studied theoretically by analytical solutions of linearized shallow water equations. Response to transient forcing (monsoon surges) are mainly in Rossby and Kelvin modes. When the forcing time scale is short, significant gravity modes are also excited. The responses closely resemble observed winter monsoon flow. Responses to stationary forcing show that deep (barotropic) motions propagate energy away into high latitudes and that shallow (baroclinic) motions are trapped around the equator. It is shown that the barotropic teleconnection-type response to tropical sources found in previous numerical studies was due to the specified vertical wind shear and surface friction.
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