Single hydrophone technique for obtaining spectral source levels of marine mammals in coastal waters
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During the annual Gray Whale migration from the Aleutians to Baja California, the mammals travel in coastal waters, thereby presenting an opportunity for the study of their sound spectral and source levels and vocabulary. However, such measurements are distorted by surface and bottom reverberation. Using the theory of rough surface scattering, knowledge of the bottom impedance, and correlation techniques, it is possible to decompose the shallow water reverberation into the contributions from different paths. From this, the range, depth and the deverberated spectral source levels of the sounds of the mammal can be determined by use of only one hydrophone rather than the conventional three or four. The theory, deverberation programming, and experimental results are presented for a model of the whale's pulsed radiation in a laboratory model coastal environment
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