THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL ACTORS’ MOTIVATIONS AND INTERACTIONS ON PEACE PROCESSES: THE CASE OF MALI
Piombo, Jessica R.
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This thesis examines the importance of international actors’ influence on reaching an effective peace agreement and in enabling its implementation. Specifically, this study seeks to explain why, despite international attention, the situation in Mali has not improved in the past five years, either in terms of defeating the rebels in the country’s northern areas or preventing terrorist attacks. To arrive at an explanation, the thesis examines the significant issues that have challenged the implementation of the 2015 peace agreement. Scholars agree that implementing a peace agreement is equally important as reaching it, and that peacemakers should therefore pay attention to the quality of peace agreements, the presence of spoilers, and the hostility of neighboring countries and international great powers to peace. Similarly, it is generally admitted that international actors should intervene to protect the peace process. Nevertheless, there is controversy over the strategy these international actors must adopt to prevent peace processes from derailing. In the specific case of Mali, the poor quality of the 2015 peace agreement, the inadequateness of the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali’s mandate, and the fact that Algeria and France primarily pursued their own interests, have undermined the UN's coordination of the peace process and diffused peace-making efforts.
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