Modeling the effects of latitudinal gradients in stellar winds, with application to the solar wind
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A steady, axisymmetric, quasi-radial, global model previously developed for stellar winds with embedded magnetic fields has been extended to include latitudinal gradient effects on the azimuthal velocity and magnetic field. The linear results at large radii are presented for large-amplitude latitudinal variations in the radial magnetic field, mass loss rate, and radial velocity of the wind. The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations predict meridional flows that develop naturally from internal magnetic stresses. The flows open flux tubes in the star's equatorial plane, redistributing mass and magnetic flux as a function of stellar latitude. The plasma spins up to conserve angular momentum in fields and plasma. The results are generally applicable to stellar winds (including radiatively driven winds), provided that the internal structure is not dominated by rotation. The asymptotic solutions do not explicitly depend on the form of the energy equation, although the assumed O(1) state which drives these solutions depends on the deposition of energy and momentum throughout the wind. 15 references.
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/163443
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