ROBUST CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS—ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL TOOLS TO COUNTERACT RUSSIAN HYBRID WARFARE: THE CASE OF UKRAINE
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Currently, we are living in the time of hybrid wars. States use both conventional and unconventional methods of warfare simultaneously. This thesis presents three key findings: a framework for building and retaining robust democratic civil-military relations in times of hybrid warfare; a description of the crucial role of civil-military cooperation in this framework; and an examination of Ukraine’s response, which implements this framework, to the Russian Federation’s hybrid warfare since 2014. The most effective elements of Ukraine’s response are analyzed in detail, including military, economic, humanitarian, political, informational, cyber, diplomatic, and special/law enforcement services activities and methods. Policy recommendations are made for Ukraine, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European Union (EU), and global security in countering Russian hybrid warfare; Ukraine should continue to increase its defense potential and raise the quality of life for its citizens; develop the Ukrainian economy and national identity; and continue pursuing lawsuits against Russia in international courts. Additionally, NATO and the EU should extend and expand sanctions against Russia, increase resilience, and intensify cooperation in the information, energy, and cybersecurity areas. Beyond providing guidance for Ukraine, the determinations can also assist other nation-states facing similar challenges in countering adversaries’ “help” while maintaining sovereignty.
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