CIVIL–MILITARY COOPERATION IN HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE: AN INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES APPROACH
Cameron, Andrea H.
Clunan, Anne L.
Apte, Aruna U.
Dahl, Erik J.
Barma, Naazneen H.
Sigman, Rachel L.
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The purpose of this research is to understand how humanitarians and militaries cooperate during humanitarian civil–military coordination in humanitarian response after the Cold War. The research evaluated the international practices explanation through a longitudinal study from 1991 to 2009, a natural disaster case (Haiti Earthquake, 2010), and a complex emergency case (Battle for Mosul, 2016 to 2017). The international practices approach best explains the cooperative framework facilitated by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA) Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination Service (UN-CMCoord). It emphasizes field-level interaction and consensus-building processes in international relations. This research developed the international practices lifecycle to visualize how local social interaction generated a new practice that became diffused, institutionalized, or faded. Empirically, not only did a cooperative framework emerge, but now cooperation is expected in natural disasters and complex emergencies. Practices primarily emerged to fill gaps in policy. Host nation support, humanitarian leadership, and CMCoord staffing and competence were essential to building trust and facilitating humanitarian civil–military coordination. A key finding was the inconsistent application of the humanitarian principles. With the collapse of humanitarian space, humanitarians and militaries can use this information to better work together in the future.
RightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.
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