USING REINFORCEMENT LEARNING TO SPOOF A MONITORED KALMAN FILTER
Bonitz, Dylan A.
Wade, Brian M.
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Modern hardware systems rely on state estimators such as Kalman filters to monitor key variables for feedback and performance monitoring. The performance of the hardware system can be monitored using a chi-squared fault detection test. Previous work has shown that Kalman filters are susceptible to false data injection attacks. In a false data injection attack, intentional noise and/or bias is added to sensor measurement data to mislead a Kalman filter in a way that goes undetected by the chi-squared test. This thesis proposes a method to deceive a Kalman filter where the attack data is generated using reinforcement learning. It is shown that reinforcement learning can be used to train an agent to manipulate the output of a Kalman filter via false data injection and without being detected by the chi-squared test. This result shows that machine learning can be used to successfully perform a cyber-physical attack by an actor who does not need to have in-depth knowledge and understanding of mathematics governing the operation of the target system. This result has significant real-world impact as modern smart power grids, aircraft, car, and spacecraft control systems are all cyber-physical systems that rely on trustworthy sensor data to function safely and reliably. A machine learning derived false data injection attack against any of these systems could lead to an undetected and potentially catastrophic failure.
RightsThis publication is a work of the U.S. Government as defined in Title 17, United States Code, Section 101. Copyright protection is not available for this work in the United States.
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