Publication:
THE USE OF FORCE IN THE 22ND CENTURY: MAN VERSUS MACHINE

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Authors
Gojcz, Christopher M.
Subjects
use of force
autonomous vehicles
AV
unmanned aircraft systems
UAS
counter-UAS
c-UAS
drones
law enforcement
decision-making framework
Advisors
Miller, Patrick E.
Halladay, Carolyn C.
Date of Issue
2022-12
Date
Publisher
Monterey, CA; Naval Postgraduate School
Language
Abstract
This research sought to determine whether current use-of-force models are applicable in situations without a human actor regarding the interdiction of autonomous vehicles. The project involved a historical overview of use-of-force policies and a qualitative analysis of current use-of-force recommendations by professional law enforcement organizations. The project also analyzed documented interactions between law enforcement and autonomous vehicles, featuring responses from a focus group, to gain law enforcement’s perspective on the use of force on autonomous vehicles. Ultimately, this project finds that current use-of-force models are unsuitable in situations without another human. The current lack of guidance for officers on the front line may lead to delayed and inconsistent responses, the improper use of force, or inaction, which could lead to loss of life. It recommends that a separate decision-making framework for the interdiction of autonomous vehicles be created to fill the gap in current use-of-force models. This new decision-making framework requires a constant evaluative process to address the potential for second-order effects and to account for such variables in the decision-making process.
Type
Thesis
Description
Series/Report No
Department
National Security Affairs (CHDS)
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Identifiers
NPS Report Number
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Distribution Statement
Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited.
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Copyright is reserved by the copyright owner.
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