A composite study of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and northeasterly cold-surges during the northern winter monsoon
Simms, John W.
Harr, Patrick A.
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During the northern winter monsoon, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and northeasterly cold-surges are active over the eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. The MJO consists of an active (wet) phase and inactive (dry) phase and varies over global spatial and intraseasonal time scales. Interactions between the MJO and northeasterly cold-surges, which vary over regional space and synoptic time scales, are examined. The interactions are examined between 1979-1998 using winds at 1000 hPa and a representation of convection during the northern winter monsoon. To identify interactions, the active and inactive phases of the MJO are divided into early or late phases (based on MJO duration). Examination of composite maps based on cold-surges defined to occur during each phase of the MJO revealed that the phase of the MJO acts to either enhance or weaken a cold-surge that may have been forced by the mid-latitudes. When MJO convection is located over the South China Sea, the surge intensifies. The favorable convection pattern dominates the unfavorable pressure-wind pattern of the MJO. When the MJO dry-phase is over the South China Sea, mid-latitude forcing appears to interact favorably with the pressure-wind pattern of the MJO to dominate the unfavorable MJO convection pattern
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