Bubble injection under breaking waves
Tannahill, James B.
Thornton, Edward B.
Stanton, Timothy P.
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Wave energy dissipation due to bubble penetration and inferred turbulent penetration from breaking waves in the surf zone is related to the total energy of dissipation. Bubble injection is inferred from void fraction measurements obtained using a 2.3 meter vertical array of eight conductivity sensors extending from the bottom through the water surface. Potential energy and dissipation associated with bubble injection are calculated and compared with total wave dissipation. Total wave dissipation is calculated from the energy flux balance measured using an array of seven pressure sensors in the surf zone. Percent of total wave potential energy of the bubbles due to spilling breakers is on the order of 0.18% to 0.62%, consistent with past measurements in the surf zone. Percent of the bubble potential energy dissipation rates to total wave dissipation in the cross shore direction is on the order of 8% to 20%. The potential energy dissipation is largest immediately after injection, decaying exponentially after that. Bubble potential energy dissipation results within 1.2 seconds even for void fraction events greater than 36% and usually in less than 1.0 seconds. Energy dissipation was found linearly related (0.95 correlation coefficient) with the ratios of wave height to water depth, a measure of the percent of breaking waves within the surf zone
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