The effects of titanium on the mechanical properties of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of C-Mn steels.
Greene, Michael K.
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The strength and toughness of low alloy steel shielded metal arc weld (SMAW) metal is markedly improved by the presence of the microconstituent acicular ferrite. Since acicular ferrite is nucleated by the non-metallic inclusions present in the weld metal. Its presence is determined by the size, number, distribution and chemical composition of these inclusions. Previous work has shown that inclusions containing no titanium are usually ineffective as nucleates of acicular ferrite in some C-Mn steel weld metal whereas inclusions containing small amounts (less than 5%) of titanium or more can produce a microstructure containing as much as 70% of acicular ferrite
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