Tropical cyclone and mid-latitude characteristics and physical mechanisms contributing to extratropical transition in the western North Pacific
Klein, Peter M.
Elsberry, Russell L.
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This study of extratropical transition (ET) of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific examines 30 cases during 1 June through 31 October 1994-98 using Navy analyses, plus geostationary satellite visible, infrared, water vapor, and microwave imagery. Based on the similarity of all 30 ET cases in satellite imagery, a three-dimensional conceptual model of the transformation stage of ET is proposed to describe how these ET cases evolve into an incipient, baroclinic cyclone. A climatology of ET during the period studied is presented, and three levels of re-intensification (little, moderate, and deep) are defined based on storm intensity at the end of ET. The re- intensification stage in nine cases is studied via Navy Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) control forecasts, simulations with the initial TC vortex removed, and simulations in which the initial TC vortex is displaced. These COAMPS simulations demonstrate that deep or moderate re- intensification depends on phasing of the poleward translating TC remnants with a critical region in which cyclogenesis is favored in the mid-latitude circulation. The mid-latitude circulation and TC contributions to the re- intensification stage are identified via superposition with the critical region and modification of its location and diagnostic values, respectively, and the combination of these contributions determines the final storm intensity at the end of ET.
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