Civil-military relations: a comparative study between Pakistan and Malaysia
Hassan, Rahmat B. Hj.
Bruneau, Thomas C.
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The armed forces of Pakistan and Malaysia, after their independence, inherited many of the common characteristics of the British armed forces, including but not limited to the implicit acceptance of civilian supremacy. However, in the subsequent years, frequent coups in Pakistan (the latest being the military coup on October 12, 1999), and their absence in Malaysia has touched off a scholarly debate. This thesis examines the experiences of Pakistan and Malaysia respectively with regard to civil-military relations. Specifically, this study focuses on the causes of military intervention in the politics of Pakistan in contrast to that of Malaysia. This thesis argues that the re-current military interventions in Pakistan are mainly due to its weak political institutions, which led to its inability to govern effectively. Malaysia, on the other hand, has a bigger advantage over Pakistan in that it has relatively mature political institutions with strong leadership and political elites. In addition, civilian control of the military is fully entrenched in the Malaysian political system and culture.
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