The search for peace and security : the case of Botswana
Gaborone, Mabe Rabashwa
Hocevar, Susan Page
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After Botswana became independent in 1966, the government did not have any immediate plans to establish a permanent army because of the opportunity cost associated with defense spending then. However, external factors such as the nationalist movements in the neighboring countries proved a threat to the sovereignty and integrity of Botswana, hence the need to establish a national army. Throughout the post-independence era, Botswana witnessed a wide range of security problems originating from outside her borders. Given her weak economic posture and priorities for providing social amenities in the years following independence, Botswana has attempted largely through diplomatic ties, membership in regional and international organizations and to a lesser extent military capabilities, to maximize her security and influence in an unstable southern African subcontinent. With the changing global environment after the end of the Cold War, South Africa's transition and other regional pressures, Botswana faces a new and different situation under which to address her security concerns. Past experience shows that Botswana could not embark upon unilateral action for her survival. In the altered environment described above, it seems the incentives for multilateral approaches are increasing for Botswana. Peace and security, Security management, Regionalism, Policy implications, Post- apartheid and defense roles and missions
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